Rainwater is collected and stored underground in subterranean water storage tanks. These storage tanks’ ribbed form allows them to be placed underground and support the surrounding soil.
Compared to above-ground storage tanks, these tanks provide several advantages. For one thing, they’re constantly hidden and take up no valuable real estate.
Because the tanks are underground, they are not impacted by cold temperatures and may endure an unlimited amount of time. Because they are kept in a cold, dark environment, they are less prone to algae and microbial development.
When rainwater is to be reused within structures, these tanks are the recommended storage tanks due to their cleanliness. Since antiquity, water tanks have been observed in desert locations or places vulnerable to siege.
These water tanks might have been for personal or communal usage, and they were commonly buried or set up in natural holes.
What kind of water tank or reservoir should be constructed? What kind of material should you use?
Water tanks and reservoirs can be utilized in a number of ways. For starters, they may be used to recover rainwater and manage the resource in places remote from water systems yet with considerable rainfall.
Reservoirs, on the other hand, can be employed in any arid environment where reliable water sources are critical (to deal with a breakdown in supplies, a potentially contaminated source, etc.).
Furthermore, water tanks may be utilized in both rural and urban settings, where there is usually enough room to build huge storage volumes, as well as in cities where the enormous surface area of roofs makes water recovery a good option. For obvious considerations of scale, smaller or even subterranean models are required in town.
a) What is the reservoir’s recommended size?
When water is plentiful (a nearby water course, heavy rainfall, etc. ), small reservoirs are good since they fill rapidly but can also be emptied and cleaned quickly. Large reservoirs, on the other hand, are recommended when there is a long-term water deficit.
When there is less rainfall or it is spread out over a shorter period of time, this is the situation. Rainwater is retained for up to six months in 15 m3 reservoirs on the Saloum Islands in Senegal (rainfall 380-800 mm/year), while 30 m3 subterranean water tanks are discovered in Ganzu Province in China (rainfall 300-400 mm/year).
b) What would be an optimal reservoir?
Lined reservoirs: by far the most basic way, lined reservoirs entail creating a pit in the ground and covering it with a waterproof lining in order to store water or collect rainwater.
This is the most often used storage option since it is simple and affordable to set up (around €35 for 6 m3 in Uganda, for example) and can meet a family’s water needs for four days. It is, nonetheless, a very primitive system that should be safeguarded, primarily to preserve water purity.
Thai jars and amphora: earthenware jars or amphora have a low water content and are ideally suited to less dry climates. Their prices are affordable. They are used to store rainwater for use as drinking water in areas where rainfall is considerable (more than 1,000 mm/year).
They can also be utilized as close reserves when the next source of drinking water is a long distance away. When such reserves are located near latrines, for example, people are encouraged to wash their hands after using the facilities, which helps to enhance cleanliness and health significantly.
To avoid contaminating the water when extracting it from the amphora, a tap or long-handled ladle should be provided.
Water tank made of stone, masonry, or wood: this approach has the benefit of employing local resources, which lowers production costs. When the outside temperature is high, the procedure also has the benefit of keeping the water cold.
This is a crucial requirement to encourage people to drink water from the reservoir (which is regarded to be safe) rather than an unimproved source.
Read also: What Is A Water Treatment Plant?
Special challenges and procedures to take while using concrete
Algae, pollutants, dead leaves, twigs, or dead animals and insects must not be found in the reservoir water. For big reservoirs, the reservoir must have a hermetically sealed, opaque cover with an inspection chamber or manhole.
Use the dosages listed at the end of the document for concrete reservoirs, just as you would for any other form of designed structure.
The main benefits and downsides
The key benefit of this method is that reserves may be used throughout the dry season and local people’ requirements can be met. Furthermore, keeping water close to homes relieves the burden on women who are normally in charge of obtaining water from far away sources.
The disadvantage is that the water collected may be or become damaged, rendering it unfit for human consumption if proper purifying or disinfection methods are not done.
Read also: Why Groundwater Treatment is needed?
ABM water company as the underground water tank manufacturer
ABM Water Company Ltd. has been delivering dependable systems for converting surface water, ground water, and sea water into pure drinking and industrial water since 1997. They design, manufacture, install, and commission reverse osmosis desalination systems, surface water treatment plants, ground water treatment plants, and iron, arsenic, and manganese removal plants that have been thoroughly tested, are dependable, and user-friendly even in the most extreme conditions.
They want to save water and make the most use of it. They treat these challenges as a serious task and endeavor to exceed our clients’ expectations at all times. They are dedicated to offering the best level of professionalism, service, and craftsmanship possible.
To ensure that customers receive recurring and referral business. In our dealings with suppliers, subcontractors, professional associates, and consumers, we strive for the greatest standards of ethics, honesty, and fairness.
They want to create a new brand in the environmental engineering business and make ABM Water Company Ltd. the first option for national and international clients. To be a market leader in the field of environmental engineering on a national and international scale.